18 Şubat 2018 Pazar

The Truth Behind the Fall of the Ottoman Empire

An Empire Falls 

By 1683, the Ottoman Empire had reached the zenith of its power with a vast territory that stretched for 24 million square kilometers. People in different corners of the world were happily living under the Ottoman rule that was based in Istanbul, which was at the time the center of the Caliphate.
They were speaking different languages, practicing different faiths and belonged to different ethnicities, but maintained a harmonious co-existence. However, the British deep state wasn't comfortable with this picture. The Ottoman Empire's impressive dominion around the world - and more importantly, its status as the representative of the Islamic community - wasn't something it was willing to accept.

When the Ottoman's stagnation period started, the British deep state took action. As a matter of fact, it was the British deep state that prepared the stages leading up to this point. With a series of strategic maneuvers, it managed to seize control of the Empire. In the end, the Ottoman Empire lost not only its vast territory but also, to a large extent, its religious and spiritual values. In a way, the British deep state applied its strategy of 'creating degenerated societies' to the Ottoman Empire and step-by-step led the Empire to its ruin.

It is important to carefully examine the reasons behind the fall of the Ottomans, because only then will the involvement of the British deep state become visible and the steps that led to the Ottoman collapse be truly understood. It will also show how a religious society was turned materialist and how a dajjali movement brought upon destruction through the use of hypocrites.

Now let's see what led the Ottoman Empire to its end:

1. Concessions Granted to Britain and the First Debt

The British deep state's fascination with the Ottoman Empire began during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. When the Queen sent the Privy Council member William Harborne to Sultan Murad III as an envoy in 1579, and Harborne took a permanent residence in Istanbul in 1583, diplomatic relations officially started. (Privy Council is a formal body of advisors in England, whose members are appointed by the prime minister and acts under the influence of the British deep state). Harborne played an important role in diplomatic relations and secured permission for two English traders to conduct business on Ottoman lands. Upon the request of the Queen, the permissions were later extended to cover all English citizens. This was the first capitulation given to the British by the Ottoman Empire, and marked the first step towards British control over the finances of the Ottomans. The Ottoman Empire's promise to grant capitulations to the British for as long as the two states continued to exist marked the beginning of the end. From that point on, the British deep state maintained a one-sided relationship with the Ottoman Empire, which worked only to the advantage of the British, impoverishing the Ottomans and making the British even wealthier.

To put things into perspective, during the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, the budget of the province of Sivas alone was 20 million gold coins, while France had a total budget of only 4 million and England 6 million. Despite its impressive wealth, after the concessions granted to the British, Ottoman began to suffer great losses and by the 19th century its financial system had hit a major roadblock. The privileges given to the British citizens reached their peak with the Treaty of Balta Liman. Interestingly enough, Sultan Mahmud II signed this treaty at his deathbed, at the instigation of the anglophile Mustafa Reşid Pasha, who was the Minister for Foreign Affairs at the time.

Twenty years later, the Crimean War broke out and though seemingly being among the victors, the war had devastating results for the Ottomans. When the British deep state-controlled Ottoman Public Debt Administration was founded during the rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, the Empire came under the complete financial control of the European powers and lost its economic independence.

A close examination of the underlying causes of the Crimean War will reveal the input of the British deep state, like urging the Russians to start the bombardments, and more specifically how it set the stage for the conflict. During the Ottoman-Russia crisis in the run-up to the war, Alexander Menshikov, head of the Russian delegation in Istanbul, clearly stated that Mustafa Reşid Pasha prevented peace because he was under pressure from the British Ambassador Lord Stratford de Redcliffe. This scenario sounds strangely familiar because the British deep state has always been involved in every Russian-Turkish disagreement that took place throughout history. Therefore, one shouldn't be surprised to find that British military advisors were in the Ottoman army during the Crimean War and during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. In fact, it was these advisors that convinced the Ottoman administrators and commanders to enter the war. These advisors plunged the country into war, making commitments which only furthered the interests of the British deep state.

The only reason why the British sided with the Ottoman Empire after the Crimean War was their desire to receive a satisfactory payback for their 'assistance'. Indeed, that is exactly what happened: British obtained its greatest concessions after this calamitous war.

With the Reform Edict of 1856, that the Ottoman Empire enacted at the end of the Crimean War, liberal Western thoughts entered into the Ottoman Empire. However, among these thoughts was Darwinism too. So, when the Crimean War ended, the British deep state had achieved its goals: it was now easier to financially and ideologically exploit the Ottoman Empire. This meant that the Empire was one step closer to its downfall.

During the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, the Ottoman Empire's financial troubles reached their peak. On November 10, 1879, Ottoman treasury taxes collected for salt, tobacco, alcohol and fishery were handed over to Galata bankers and British-French banks, which were under British deep state control at the time. On December 20, 1881, with the Decree of Muharram, Abdul Hamid II opened Ottoman finances to international auditing, which marked the first time that foreigners obtained control over the way Ottoman finances were handled.

How the British Deep State Used Religion

When Queen Elizabeth I of England wrote a letter to the Ottoman Sultan regarding capitulations, she was aware that she was corresponding with the Caliph of the Muslims. Therefore, she made sure to distance herself from Catholic Europe and declared that she 'worshipped the true God, Who punished idolatry' and claimed that she was the archenemy of the Catholics whom she viewed as 'pagans'.

Even though the Queen and the British envoys claimed in the letter that they were close to Muslims, that closeness was nothing but an act. In their personal letters sent to London, the ambassadors described Islam as an evil and barbarous religion (the glorious religion of Islam is above such claims). Their Muslim-friendly attitude was only a lie told in the name of God and, in their letters, they wrote they believed God would forgive them for those lies.

This fake friendly attitude of the British deep state towards Muslims continued for 450 years and persists even today. Sayyeed Abdulhakim Arvasi, an Islamic scholar who lived in late Ottoman period, eloquently explained this aversion to Muslims:

British is the greatest enemy of Islam. If we compare Islam to a tree, other disbelievers will chop it off at the first opportunity and Muslims will know they are the enemies. However, that tree might grow back one day. British are not like that. They serve this tree, water it and Muslims like British as a result. However, at nighttime, when no one is around, British come and inject poison into the root. The tree dries so bad, it won't be able to grow back ever again. And then the British will come and say: 'Alas, I'm so sorry' and fool the Muslims. The British inject poison into Islamic world by purchasing local hypocrites and traitors in exchange for worldly pleasures like money, position or women and destroy Islamic scholars, books and information.1 [The British state and nation are above these statements.]

This is an accurate analysis. Needless to say, Abdulhakim Arvasi was not referring to the innocent British people, but the British deep state. As explained before, British administrations and the British people are completely innocent of such crimes.

1. M. Sıddık Gümüş, ""M. Sıddık Gümüş Sözleri ve Alıntıları"", Alıntısöz, http://www.alintisoz.com/sozler/bu-kitab%C4%B1-dikkat-ile-okuyan-islam%C4%B1n-en-b%C3%BCy%C3%BCk-d%C3%BC%C5%9Fman/49194;

2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads

In the first part of the book, readers have seen how the theory of evolution, the biggest scientific blunder in history, was molded by members of the British deep state before being imposed on the people of the world. It was also explained that the desire to erase moral, spiritual, familial and patriotic sentiments all around the world in a bid to create open societies inclined to conflict was the real reason why Darwinism was so intensely supported. The British deep state hoped that the theory would help spread its dajjali system around the world, help disintegrate the Islamic community and degenerate Christian and Jewish communities. It considered this an easy way to drag societies into conflicts and moral decline.

The British deep state made sure to choose the right time to introduce the scourge of Darwinism to the Ottoman Empire. By the late 19th century the Empire had largely lost its power and influence. Disguised as 'enlightenment', the scourge entered and spread sinisterly in the Ottoman lands with the help of certain people who imagined that subscribing to materialism was equivalent to being modern. Associations, institutions and schools that were opened under British deep state's supervision worked to indoctrinate the people into Darwinism. As a result, the noble Turkish nation that represented the Caliphate, as well as all Muslim nations, fell into the clutches of a movement that maintained 'there is no God' (God is above such remarks).

After the poison was injected, the rest came easy for the British deep state. As Darwinism spread in the body, the goal of an Islamic Union was forgotten, the Muslim world was divided, and people lost their religious and patriotic values, which were most often replaced by hypocritical behaviors. From that point on, the British deep state was able to easily manipulate the Ottoman society by means of its spies and propaganda tools. In fact, at one point, it was able to dictate to statesmen and sultans like Abdul Hamid II whom they kept under pressure.

For these reasons, it would be an accurate conclusion to say that the first main contributing factor to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire was Darwinism.

How Did Darwinism Take Root in the Ottoman Empire?

By the early 19th century, Westernization had become the top trend among the Ottoman intelligentsia and diplomats. First scientific and technological developments, and then political and economic models of the Western world made their way into the empire to renovate the Ottoman state system. Even the Ottoman army went through a thorough reformation that included detailed changes in uniforms and equipment.

Although this Westernization trend was useful in some areas, it also negatively influenced the social order and mindset of the Ottoman public. Many people began to believe that the Western world was 'absolutely better' in everything, including philosophy and science. Atheistic ideologies like materialism, positivism and Darwinism, already prevalent in Europe, affected many Ottoman intellectuals. As a result, many came to believe that being an atheist, supporting unscientific claims of Darwin and having a materialist worldview meant being modern and Western-like. Some politicians of the time built their policies on social Darwinism, which claimed that only strong societies could survive in the fight for life. Ultimately, this Darwinist trend that denied the existence of God became the downfall of the Ottoman Empire. Starting in the second half of the 19th century, materialist views of Ernst Haeckel, Herbert Spencer, Auguste Comte etc. proliferated among some of the Ottoman intellectuals. During this time, more than two hundred materialist and Darwinist books were translated into Turkish and Arabic.

During this time, materialist books were widely circulated at the Ottoman medical, law, political science and military schools, which trained many officers and administrators. A 19th-century traveler named Mac Farlane wrote what he saw after he paid a visit to the medical school in the Ottoman Empire in 1847:

[Referring to the medical library] It was long since I had seen such a collection of downright materialism. ... A book was lying open on the divan. I took it up. It was a copy of a recent Paris edition of the Atheist's manual, "Système de la Nature", with the name of the Baron d'Holbach on the title-page as the author. The volume had evidently been much used; many of the striking passages had been marked, and especially those which mathematically demonstrated the absurdity of believing in the existence of a God and the impossibility of believing in the immortality of the soul.113 [Certainly, Almighty God is above such remarks]

In other words, Darwinist thoughts that dragged students into atheism quickly proliferated in the medical schools. Abdülaziz Khan ordered that Darwinist education be stopped at once as soon as he ascended to the throne, and dismissed from their duties those who were arguing in favor of a Darwinist/materialist education.

Spread of the Theory of Evolution in the Empire during the Reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II

The Darwinist indoctrination that came to a standstill during the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz reached its height during the rule of Abdul Hamid II. Darwinist/materialist papers, books and journals spread across the Empire's lands, and mostly in Istanbul, Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria. Even more worryingly, Darwinism was incorporated into the school curriculum in many places. Darwinist/materialist officers that were removed from their duties by Abdülaziz were not only reinstated, they were promoted to key positions in the Ministry of Education, the State Publishing House and even to grand viziership.

Abdul Hamid II himself ordered that 20,000 copies of the Hamidian Treatise by Lebanese writer Husayn al-Jisr be printed and distributed in Istanbul. The book was full of materialist and Darwinist claims and was intended to sow the seeds of atheistic philosophy in Ottoman society. Interestingly enough, the book was named the Hamidian Treatise, as a tribute to Abdul Hamid II. When the book became popular, al-Jisr was invited by Abdul Hamid II to Istanbul and was received in the Malta Mansion and was given the Fourth Class Order of Osmanieh, in addition to various other gifts. Abdul Hamid II praised him on numerous occasions. He was invited three times by Abdul Hamid II to Istanbul and stayed as the Sultan's guest.

Abdul Hamid II instructed the translation and publication of the Hamidian Treatise in Turkish and asked al-Jisr to compile a book on religious principles for schools.114

Abdul Hamid II indeed showed support for al-Jisr but the truth was al-Jisr and his book were among the main reasons that led to the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Under the personal orders of Abdul Hamid II, the book was widely disseminated across the Empire. In the book, which he dedicated to Abdul Hamid II, al-Jisr claimed –despite the complete absence of scientific evidence to back his point- that mutations could help organisms evolve and that there were many transitional forms. According to al-Jisr, Darwin's theory did not contradict the religion of Islam.

The truth is mutations are deformations that are harmful 99% of the time and neutral the remaining 1% time. As a matter of fact, recent scientific studies showed that even the 1% accepted to be neutral become harmful over time. For this reason, they are now called silent mutations. In other words, science has proven that mutations are 100% harmful. Furthermore, the claim that 'there is a sufficient amount of transitional forms' is one of the biggest deceptions of the theory of evolution. More than 700 million fossils have been unearthed so far and not even one of them belongs to a transitional form. Not even one single transitional form fossil has been found so far showing that living things evolved from another, and it is impossible that any will be found in the future. Each and every one of the hundreds of millions of fossils unearthed so far belongs to complete, perfect, flawless creatures that hadn't gone through any changes. Even Darwin himself admitted in his book that unless transitional form fossils are found, his theory would collapse:

…why, if species have descended from other species by fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms? Why is not all nature in confusion, instead of the species being, as we see them, well defined…? But, as by this theory innumerable transitional forms must have existed, why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in the crust of the earth…? Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory.115

Al-Jisr went as far as claiming that this theory, which denied the existence of God, did not contradict the Qur'an. His Hamidian Treatise was full of unscientific and non-Qur'anic explanations like the mistaken claim that Darwin's theory did not contradict with belief in God and that theory of evolution could be interpreted in line with religion and that some verses could be construed that way. He provided an example of those writers and scholars of the time, who sought to spread this lie among religious people. Indeed, his book was translated into many languages, particularly Turkish and Urdu, and quickly became popular among many scholars in modern Syria and Turkey. Some of the scholars in Al-Azhar University, in particular, paid close attention to the book. Al-Jisr was himself a graduate of that university.

Hasan Tahsini, also known as Hoxha Tahsin, was the first rector of the Darülfünûn –the original Istanbul University-, founded by Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Hasan Tahsini was among the first Darwinists in the Ottoman Empire and was appointed to the post of rector of the University by Abdul Hamid II. Grand Vizier Reşid Pasha had personally sent him to Europe to study, from where he returned as a materialist. In his article 'Tarih-i Tekvin' (History of Creation), he was talking about the so-called 'new levels of change that the universe would achieve in the future as a result of the rule of evolution that dominated the entire universe and existence'.116

Hasan Tahsini famously tried to explain the origin of the universe and the creation of man as well as other life forms through the theory of evolution in his book Varoluşun Tarihi veya Yaratılış (History of Being or Creation). He also worked vehemently to spread the Darwinist theory. His staunch devotion to the materialist theory earned him the nickname 'Monsieur Tahsini'. He brought Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, an evolutionist Al-Azhar graduate, to Istanbul and allowed him to carry out evolutionist propaganda at Istanbul University. Afghani was another fervent supporter of al-Jisr's book. Hasan Tahsini raised many students before he was dismissed from his duty on the grounds of 'impairing the faith of the young people he taught'. However, many of his students now were materialists, were already working across the Empire's lands and teaching other young people Darwinism, which made the theory spread like wildfire.

Books and articles of Ahmed Midhat Efendi, another evolutionist, were also widely used as reference texts in the university. Dağarcık (Repertoire) magazine published by Ahmed Midhat Efendi in 1871 heavily propagandized the erroneous idea of evolution while its tens of thousands of copies were widely circulated throughout the Empire. He claimed that 'humans had inherently violent qualities as humans were also sort of animals' as he defended the violence of social Darwinism as follows:

Revenge is a sort of justice, is a violent justice. Evil is done rarely for pleasure, but rather it is pursued for greed, reputation and interests. Then how do we know that the evil behavior, a part of our nature, will harm us? If teazel hurts, it's because it's created that way.117
Similarly, the 'Ottoman Society of Science' founded by Münif Pasha, who was the Minister of Education during the reign of Abdul Hamid II, aimed at spreading materialism and evolution through scientific journals. Their first journal, Mecmua-i Fünûn (Journal of Sciences) was filled with evolutionist propaganda. Sultan Abdülaziz had previously dismissed Münif Pasha due to propagandizing evolution but when Abdul Hamid II ascended to the throne, Münif Pasha was again made the Minister of Education.
Darwinist and materialist inculcation worked, with results becoming quickly visible as the Ottoman intelligentsia began gathering around the so-called New Literature Movement and its publication Servet-i Fünûn (Wealth of Knowledge), which acted as the hub of materialism and positivism. Abdülhak Hamid Tarhan and Recaizade Mahmud Ekrem, the leading poets and authors of the movement, entertained following twisted views that would no doubt impair the moral values of the society:

Islamic civilization had reached the end of its lifetime.

A new civilization rose in the West, with new thoughts, sociology and techniques.

This civilization will, sooner or later, destroy the Ottoman Empire.

Sami Frashëri (authored under the name of Şemseddin Sami Efendi), and Ahmed Cevdet, the editors-in-chief of dailies Sabah (Morning) and Ikdam (Effort) respectively, were also leading evolutionists during the reign of Abdul Hamid II. Sami Frashëri's book Njeriu (Human Being) that he wrote in 1878, Ethem Necdet's Tekâmül Kanunları (Laws of Development) and Celal Nuri's Tarih-i Tedenniyat-ı Osmaniye: Mukadderat-ı Tarihiye (History of Ottoman Empire's Decline: Dialectics of History) are only few of the Darwinist books published during Abdul Hamid II's reign. Together with Tercüman-i Hakikat (Interpreter of Truth) and its lead writer Ahmed Midhat Efendi, the three major newspapers of the time were under evolutionist influence. Furthermore, Ceride-i Havadis (Journal of News), another popular newspaper of the time, and its lead writer Beşir Fuad also had evolutionary views. These people are usually considered the first people to spread atheism in the Ottoman Empire. Ceride-i Havadis (Journal of News) was published by the British journalist William Nosworthy Churchill as the first semi-official newspaper of the Ottoman Empire. Although from the outside it appeared as a journal of science and literature and thus gathered the writers of the time under its roof, its true purpose was shaping public opinion in favor of the political and economic interests of the British. This point becomes even more interesting considering the fact that David Urquhart, who had served as the secretary of the British embassy at Istanbul between 1835 and 1837, reported to the Royal Family that he found the Ottoman Empire, which had rich natural sources and a wide market, beneficial for British interests.

With Ceride-i Havadis, William Nosworthy Churchill tried subtly to make the Ottoman public accept what was in favor of the British interests. Indeed, a couple of years later, the Ottoman Empire began to meet the raw material needs of British industry, and the sales of British products increased at the expense of Ottoman industry. Turkish Cypriot scientist Niyazi Berkes speaks of how the situation baffled the British and how they mocked the Ottoman statesmen for being so gullible.118 (The statesmen of the time are above such remarks)
Moreover, many other publications during the era of Abdul Hamid II such as İçtihad (The Opinion), Piyano Mecmuası (Piano Journal), Envar-ı Zeka (Light of Intelligence), Yirminci Asırda Zeka Mecmuası (Intelligence Journal in Twentieth Century), Güneş (Sun), Havran, Mecmua-ı Ulüm (Journal of Knowledge), Saadet (Happiness), Afak (The Horizon) and Felsefe (Philosophy), contributed to promulgation of the evolution lie in the Empire. Consequently, the Ottoman society suffered a swift moral decline.
The education system of Abdul Hamid II's reign raised many materialists that worked to disseminate the lie of evolution. Some of them, and some from the years that followed, and their anti-Islamic views can be listed as follows:

Ahmed Midhat Efendi: One of the first defenders of the theory of evolution in the Ottoman Empire. Despite being previously removed from his duties by Sultan Abdülaziz, he was invited back to Istanbul when Abdul Hamid II ascended to the throne. Abdul Hamid II ordered him to found the newspaper Tercüman-ı Hakikat (Interpreter of Truths), which became the semi-official publication of the Palace. The newspaper was published until 1921, with famous Darwinist writers of the time like Ahmed Cevdet and Ahmed Rasim as its regular columnists. Abdul Hamid II also appointed Ahmed Midhat as the director of the State Publishing House.

Some of the titles of Ahmed Midhat Efendi's pieces were, "Adem ve Orangutan" (Adam and Orangutan), "Hayvanatın Hissi" (Feelings of Animals), "İnsan Tenha Yaşasa Ne Olur" (What Would Happen if Humans Lived Alone). The last-mentioned piece claimed that humans had a completely animalistic past and that they supposedly evolved in time to reach their current state in addition to other outlandish notions, such as if a human baby lived among animals, he would have behaved like an animal.

Another piece by Ahmed Midhat, "Dünyada İnsanın Zuhuru" (The Appearance of Man on Earth) which was taught in schools, started with the following sentence: 'Since humans are sort of animals, of course we are curious how they might have come into being in this world'. The article was full of Darwinist tales.

Another article by Ahmed Midhat entitled "İntikam" (Revenge) - once again taught in schools - wrongly claimed that violence was a part of human nature; in other words, he was promoting social Darwinism:

Revenge is a sort of justice, is a violent justice. … Then how do we know that the evil behavior, a part of our nature, will harm us?

Mehmed Esad Saffet Pasha: Ahmed Midhat was a close friend of Saffet Pasha, a Minister of Education during the rule of Abdul Hamid II. Upon orders from the Sultan, Saffet Pasha appointed Hasan Tahsini as the rector of Istanbul University, who was another evolutionist. He was one of the people who completely changed the Ottoman educational system and supposedly brought European standards to education (to put it more accurately, he incorporated Darwinism into the education system). He was one of the founders of Galatasaray High School, one of the centers of Darwinist education at the time. Sedat Simavi, the founder of the Hürriyet newspaper, is Saffet Pasha's grandson. Saffet Pasha was also one of the plotters of the coup against Sultan Abdülaziz in 1876.

Ahmed Rıza: Supported the 'world citizen' view of positivism. Due to his anglophile character and emulation of English style in the way he dressed, he was also known as the English Ahmed Rıza.

Salih Zeki: Defended the materialist views of Auguste Comte in Robert College, Darüşşafaka and Darülfünûn, where he lectured.

Rıza Tevfik: Considered Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin as his teachers and promoted Darwinism in his articles.

Hüseyin Cahit Yalçın: Became a materialist while studying at the School of Political Sciences. He considered the theory of evolution as a requirement of materialism and rejected Creation.

Ahmet Şuayb: Worked as a lecturer at the School of Law and Istanbul University, and supported the views of Comte.

Abdullah Cevdet: After being introduced to evolutionist ideas at the Medical School, Abdullah Cevdet proselytized his materialist, evolutionist and atheist views for the following 28 years through his magazine İçtihad (The Opinion). His destructive ideas created a deep wound in Ottoman society. He was a social Darwinist that went as far as suggesting that European men should be brought for breeding so that Turkish race could be improved.119 According to Abdullah Cevdet, the superiority of the races could be determined by the size of their skulls. He was a member of the Society of the Friends of England, which was founded by anglophiles during the occupation of Istanbul. He published Fünûn ve Felsefe (Science and Philosophy) that sought to reconcile the ideas of Islamic scholars with those of materialist philosophers and biologists.
A staunch propagandist of Darwinism and atheism through his numerous articles and books, Abdullah Cevdet was appointed to the Vienna Embassy by Abdul Hamid II. Many people wrongly believe that Abdullah Cevdet was a dissident against the Sultan. The truth was different however, because Abdullah Cevdet was one of the informers working for Abdul Hamid II. Abdul Hamid II provided him with the necessary funding so that he could settle in Vienna. Strangely enough, he was also one of the people behind the 1908 coup that saw the deposition of Abdul Hamid II.

Physician Hayrullah Efendi: "İnsanın Satıhı Arzda Sureti İntişarı" (The Spread of Man on the Face of Earth) by Hayrullah Efendi was one of the most popular evolutionist pieces that circulated at schools during the reign of Abdul Hamid II. He claimed that in addition to the account of human history that started with the Prophet Adam (pbuh), the origins of humans had to be explained from an evolutionary perspective.

Ziya Gökalp: A protégé of Abdullah Cevdet, Gökalp spread materialist views in Turkish society and played a big role in the moral decline that affected a large part of the community.

Süleyman Hüsnü Pasha: Commander of the military college and one of the coup plotters that organized the deposing of Sultan Abdülaziz.

Süleyman Pashazade Sami: The son of the coup plotter Süleyman Hüsnü Pasha, he served as the Minister of Education and as the rector of the Istanbul University. He prepared guidelines for primary schools, and worked on children's education with a project named 'Education and Training of Children'.

Beşir Fuad: Had a materialist worldview. As the mentor of Abdullah Cevdet, Baha Tevfik, Ahmet Nebil and Celal Nuri, he was responsible for their materialist views. He introduced social Darwinism to the Ottoman Empire, which was one of the basic ideologies of Young Turks during the Abdul Hamid II rule. Beşir Fuad was heavily influenced by evolutionist/materialist thinkers such as Claude Bernard and Ludwig Büchner. He committed suicide at the age of 35 and wrote down how he felt as he slipped away. He said that he did this to leave a scientific understanding as to what one feels at time of death. This suicide created shock waves in the Ottoman society, which up to that point was quite unfamiliar with the concept of suicide, and triggered a suicide trend in Istanbul.
Baha Tevfik: Became an evolutionist at the School of Political Sciences during the reign of Abdul Hamid II. He argued for unconditional Westernization. In an article he wrote for the journal Felsefe (Philosophy), he claimed that a philosopher had to be a scientist and definitely a materialist. To him metaphysics was 'empty and negative' and contradicted science. In his book Hassasiyet Bahsi ve Yeni Ahlak (Issue of Sensitivities and New Morality), he rejected religious moral values. His so-called solution for the future of the humanity was communism and anarchy. He believed that the future could be revived with scientific anarchy.

Hüseyin Hilmi: It is reported that he got his communist ideals from Baha Tevfik. In the journal İştirak (The Participation) that he published in 1910, he wrote several pieces on Marxism.

Subhi Edhem: A teacher of history of nature, he was also an author at Servet-i Fünun (Wealth of Knowledge). Taught Lamarckism and Darwinism during his lectures.

Ethem Nejat: Became an evolutionist together with Baha Tevfik. He was also writing for İçtihad (The Opinion) magazine of Abdullah Cevdet. He was the founding general secretary of the Communist Party of Turkey.

Memduh Süleyman: Translated Eduard von Hartmann's book Wahrheit und Irrtum im Darwinismus, and co-authored Nietzsche'nin Hayatı ve Felsefesi (Nietzsche's Life and Philosophy) with Baha Tevfik. He was one of the ideologues of Ottoman Socialist Party.
Celal Nuri İleri: Believed that matter didn't have a beginning or an end. After reading Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet's Discours sur l'histoire universelle (Discourse on Universal History), he became an evolutionist and argued in his book Tarih-i İstikbal (History of Future) (1915) that Islam should be reformed by means of materialism and evolution. According to Celal Nuri, matter was everywhere, every moment and could not have possibly gone bad. He believed that power was an inherent part of matter, that the two were interlinked and could not be separated. He made a feeble attempt to reconcile Islam and the theory of evolution. The truth is, he rejected belief in God right in the beginning of his book, making his intentions clear that, as an evolutionist, he was only trying to spread an atheistic ideology in the Empire.

The Theory of Evolution in the Ottoman-Arab Lands

Before 1876, which was the year Abdul Hamid II ascended to the throne, no books or articles had ever been written in the Arabic world about Darwin or his theory of evolution. The first time something about Darwin was ever written was in 1882. It should be noted that when the British deep state invaded Egypt in 1881, Al-Azhar University became a haunt of the evolutionists.

Darwin's theory was first mentioned in the Arab world in a series of three articles published in the monthly Arabic magazine al-Muqtataf. This magazine was founded by Yaqub Sarruf and Faris Nimr in Beirut in 1876. All three pieces were penned by Rizq-Allah al-Berbari and ascribed human origins to so-called evolutionary mechanisms. He referred to Lamarck and praised Darwin. Vol. 2 had three more articles written by Bishara Zalzal Efendi on anthropology.

Bishara Zalzal published a 368-page book in Alexandria, Egypt in 1879. This book, which was dedicated in both prose and poetry to Sultan Abdul Hamid II, was entitled Tanwir al-adhhan (The Enlightenment of Minds). In the book, Lord Cromer was praised as "a typical example of the Anglo-Saxon people". Obviously, Zalzal was an evolutionist that had a deep admiration for Abdul Hamid II, British Lord Cromer and the whole Anglo-Saxon people in general.120

These supposedly 'scientific' magazines quickly proliferated in Egypt, Lebanon and Syria between 1865 and 1929. The most popular three of the evolutionist magazines were as follows:

Al-Muqtataf (Anthology, Harvest, or Selection) (1876-1952)
Al-Hilal (The Crescent) (1892-1930)
Al-Mashriq (The East) (1898-1930)

The so-called enlightenment movement in the Arabic world called 'al-Nahda' originated in Egypt and possessed largely evolutionist views. Unsurprisingly, its founder, Rifa'a al-Tahtawi, was an evolutionist who deeply admired Britain. Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh were among the leading figures of this movement.

Jamal al-Din al-Afghani was a social Darwinist. He claimed that the Islamic world could progress only if Islamic nations fought each other. Many violent radical organizations were built on this premise and the vicious cycle of violence that continues even today in the Islamic world was based on his Darwinist ideas.
In the meantime, evolutionist Christian Arabs began to spread social Darwinism, which quickly resulted in the popularity of a racist form of nationalism among Arabs. Young Turks were also embracing social Darwinism at the time, and began to pursue the Turkish version of the same racist understanding. These two clashing ideas drove a wedge between Muslims that had lived together peacefully for more than a thousand years, and civil unrest began erupting across the lands of the Empire. Over the next 20 years, the entire empire came crashing down. The social Darwinist indoctrination and propaganda under Abdul Hamid II's administration had taken its toll and tore a vast Empire into pieces.

Darwinism's Fortress: Al-Azhar University

Al-Azhar University in Egypt is an important educational institute. However, there is a lingering British deep state influence, which started when Egypt came under British rule. Some of its famous graduates have been tasked with doing the bidding of the British deep state.

It was Al-Azhar University that helped the theory of evolution make its true entry into the Muslim Arab world. As a matter of fact, it is where evolutionists such as al-Jisr have been taught. Darwinist Lord Cromer made changes in the university and appointed evolutionist Muhammad Abduh as the Grand Mufti of Egypt. A graduate of Al-Azhar, Abduh was one of the first Muslim evolutionists and the founder of the so-called Islamic modernism.

Mohammed Amin al-Husseini, appointed by the British as the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in 1921, also was a graduate of Al-Azhar, not to mention a fan of Muhammad Abduh. The British deep state set up armed Jewish units while simultaneously supporting radical Palestinian nationalist movements in Palestine. The goal was turning two nations against each other when they had co-existed peacefully for centuries before. On the other hand, Ahmed 'Urabi (known as Ahmad Arabi), who was the leader of the unrest which resulted in the invasion of Egypt by the British, was also a graduate of Al-Azhar. Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani, the founder of the Hizb ut-Tahrir party, was also an Al-Azhar graduate. Furthermore, Omar Abdel-Rahman, who was held responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, also graduated from Al-Azhar University. Most of these people are also evolutionists.

This entire evolutionist group was trained by Evelyn Baring, known as Lord Cromer, who was British controller-general and Consul-General in Egypt between 1878 and 1907. Cromer was a racist and an ardent evolutionist. He was convinced in the superiority of Western societies and claimed that the Islamic world and Egyptian people were inferior, and that those societies could never govern themselves (Turkish- Islamic societies are above such claims). He claimed that all races should be ruled by the supposedly 'superior' races, and maintained that Anglo-Saxons were superior and, just like parents, had to rule the world. Claiming that Western societies should discipline Eastern people, Lord Cromer elaborated why he appointed Muhammad Abduh as the Grand Mufti of Egypt:

They are the natural allies of the European reformer. Egyptian patriots –sua si bona norint– will find in the advancement of the followers of Mohammed Abdu the best hope that they may gradually carry out their programme of creating a truly autonomous Egypt.121

Today, many of the radical groups that shed blood supposedly in the name of Islam are the products of this creed. The British deep state presents these people, who in truth have nothing to do with Islam and who are indeed diametrically opposed to Islam with their evolutionist and therefore racist views, as the 'main players of radicalism' and plays out its own scenario with the help of these actors. These Darwinist spies, who were raised with the inculcation of the British deep state, are charged with bolstering instability and carrying out terror attacks in countries, all in line with the orders of the deep state.

Evolutionist Views Take a Toll on Ottoman India and Pakistan

It was Syed Ahmad Khan, an Indian Muslim, that introduced the theory of evolution to the Muslims of India and Pakistan. Heavily influenced by Muhammad Abduh, Syed Ahmad Khan was deeply loyal to Britain and was knighted by the British government. Once he explained his thoughts on the British rule as follows:

We are loyal and dedicated to the British government. We don't answer to the Islamic caliphate. Instead of reporting to a distant caliph, we will rather report to the British administrators in our country.122

The Aligarh Muslim University, founded by Syed Ahmad Khan, served as the center of Darwinism in the region and raised many evolutionists - and it had a multitude of Indian and Pakistani politicians among its graduates. This university played a significant role in the systematic spread of Darwinism and set the stage for Pakistan's and India's departure from the Ottoman Caliphate. It also helped introduce certain individuals with an inferiority complex to the British deep state, and created a front in India and Pakistan against the Ottoman Empire.

The Scourge that Brought the Downfall of the Ottoman Empire: Darwinism

Turkish historian Süleyman Kocabaş eloquently explains the methods of the British deep state when it wishes to gain control over a region:

British colonization policy since the 18th century has been based on principles of degenerating moral values, spying, plots and dividing indigenous people to eventually pit them against each other.123

The British deep state achieved its goals - first by building the stage for moral degeneration across the lands of the Empire. The initial step was spreading Darwinism through pivotal points like media, schools and universities. It should be remembered that this had been the goal of the British deep state all along, since the first time it molded and began spreading the lie of Darwinism. Societies, deprived of their moral values and harboring hatred for each other, would inevitably destroy their countries. The British deep state always prepares this setting and the rest follows as planned.

In the case of the Ottoman Empire, everything certainly went as planned by the British deep state. A couple of evolutionist intellectuals, deliberately placed in strategic positions, were presented as very important people supposedly bringing 'enlightenment and science'. Proponents of evolution had no qualms about producing false evidence to support the theory, which was in fact devoid of any scientific evidence. Then Darwinist dictatorship - controlled by the British deep state - stepped in to provide full protection to the lie of evolution in the Empire. As a result, all who dared to reject evolution were ostracized and denied jobs at schools and in business life. The British deep state's plan was to quickly spread Darwinism, hoping that it would erode moral values. Regrettably, their predictions came true and civil unrest, clashes and riots began breaking out across the Empire. Soon after, the entire Empire began falling apart.

However, it should never be forgotten that if a society says, 'there is no God', God will never allow them to continue their presence. The real reason behind the fall of the Empire was not the deep plans and plots. It was because of the spread of this horrible system of disbelief that said, 'there is no God' (Almighty God is above such remarks). This is true for every other country and system that makes the same mistake. No system or state can succeed if they think promoting evolution will make them 'modern and progressive'. The fact that God sometimes gives some countries time to change and correct their behavior shouldn't make anyone believe otherwise.

By the grace of God, when the Mahdi (pbuh) emerges, people and states will see the immensity of their mistake and abandon the scourge of Darwinism. Sensible people should see the fall of the Ottoman Empire as an important lesson from God and engage in an intellectual effort against the deceit of Darwinism.

Almighty God explains that every destroyed country met that end because they insisted on their mistakes even though they knew the truth:

Company of jinn and men! Did not messengers come to you from among yourselves relating My signs to you and warning you of the encounter of this day of yours? They will say, 'We testify against ourselves.' The life of the world deluded them and they will testify against themselves that they were unbelievers. That was because their Lord would never have destroyed the cities unjustly while their people were unaware. (Qur'an, 6:130-131)

That is because God is the Real and what you call on apart from Him is false. God is the All-High, the Most Great. (Qur'an, 22:62)

The Coat of Arms of Abdul Hamid II Was Commissioned by Queen Victoria

Abdul Hamid II was one of the Ottoman sultans that ruled under intense pressure from the British deep state. The effect was so palpable, even his coat of arms was commissioned by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who hired the Briton Charles Young for the job. After some additions made to the design by Abdul Hamid II himself, the emblem became the official coat of arms of the Empire in 1882. 

In the design, the tughra (signature) of the Sultan at the top was encircled by a sun, which represented the control of the British Empire –the empire upon which the sun never sets- over the Ottoman Empire. The banners of the Caliphate and the Ottoman Empire were placed under the British Sun. The figure in the middle was the diamond on the British Royal scepter, in other words, a nod to the British Kingdom. The sword, spear and other similar figures on the design are also found on the British imperial state crown. 

3. Moral Decline Speeds up in the Ottoman Society as Alcohol, Gambling and Adultery Spread

In previous pages it was mentioned how Abdul Hamid II was one of the Ottoman sultans that had to rule his lands largely under the pressure of the British deep state. This is why his rule saw one of the sharpest declines the Ottoman Empire had ever experienced, both physically and spiritually. Sultan Abdul Hamid II was, in a way, a prisoner confined to Yıldız Palace. He couldn't escape being ensnared by the British deep state plots. During his rule, the British deep state did everything in its power to spread not only the Darwinist propaganda but also to accelerate moral degeneration. During his reign;

The first rakı (a Turkish alcoholic drink) and beer factories in the Ottoman Empire were opened,

The number of brothels skyrocketed, which caused a sharp increase in adultery,

The Ottoman Empire began to export wine to European countries,

Gambling became widespread.

Furthermore, during his rule, the Empire became completely reliant upon the West, especially after the establishment of the Ottoman Public Debt Administration. More importantly however, the Islamic world was divided. Many riots broke out across the Ottoman lands during this time, for which the primary reason purported by the British deep state was that the Caliphate had strayed away from Islam and that the center of Caliphate was degenerating Muslim societies.

The First Ottoman Rakı and Beer Factories Open

Bomonti Brothers opened the first beer factory of the Ottoman Empire in Istanbul during the reign of Abdul Hamid II. Olympus Brewery was also set up in Thessaloniki. Abdul Hamid II personally signed the licenses of these facilities. Bomonti beer factory produced seven million liters of beer every year, which later reached ten million liters. 'Bomonti Beer Gardens' were built along the way that stretched from Thrace to Eskişehir, so that local people could drink beer.
An advertisement of Bomonti beer read as follows:

If you wish to quench your thirst, and don't wish to drink the germy water, drink Bomonti beer instead. Home delivery is available in Istanbul.124

The advertisements even went as far as claiming that beer, a harmful drink, could cure ailments. It was recommended to those wishing to put on weight and even to nursing mothers.125

During the reign of Abdul Hamid II, beer consumption in Istanbul and its vicinity increased so much that trains began to carry fresh beer from as far away as Vienna. Abdul Hamid II imposed taxes on alcohol and issued the Alcoholic Beverage Regulations. This regulation dated April 7, 1886, stipulated the taxes to be collected for alcoholic drinks, while another regulation dated July 14, 1890, set the quality standards and the taxes for the wine to be exported.
Abdul Hamid II's involvement in alcoholic drink regulations and the corresponding taxes is important because he was the 'Islamic Caliph'. His role in such practices was a clear indicator of the grim situation the Ottoman Empire found itself in, not to mention the intense pressure of the British deep state. The expense ledgers of the Yıldız and Dolmabahçe Palaces show wine, champagne and other drinks were bought for the palace, too.

The first rakı factory of Turkey was opened during the rule of Abdul Hamid II at Umurca Farm in Çorlu. This farm belonged to the Sarıcazade Ragıp Pasha, the head chamberlain of the Sultan and the Minister of Finance. Umurca Rakı quickly became very popular and taxes collected from the sales of this rakı became the most important item in the tax class called Rüsum-u Sitte ('The Six Indirect Taxes', named so because it consisted of six different taxes designated to pay off the debts of the Sublime Porte).
The aforementioned weren't the only rakı factories opened during Abdul Hamid II's rule. The town of Fertek in Niğde was producing Fertek Rakı. Brands like Boğaziçi, Ruh and Alem were competing to get the top spot in the rakı market. During Abdul Hamid II's rule, which was a time even the palace staff was producing rakı, Deniz Kızı Rakı, also known as Tenedos Rakı, became very popular. Üzüm Kızı Rakı was another popular rakı brand and was usually known as 'the rakı with the girl' due to its advertisement posters.

Abdul Hamid II issued another decree and permitted the production of the Greek version of rakı, known as 'ouzo', in Pergamum.

Wine Production and Export during the Reign of Abdul Hamid II

In 1889, vineyards were set up on a land in Erenköy, Istanbul on a 70-hectare land. During the rule of Abdul Hamid II, the Sultaniye vineyards in the Aegean region were used to produce grapes for wine production, which would later be exported to Europe.

When European vineyards started going bad, the whole of Europe, particularly France, turned to the Ottoman Empire, to meet the demands for wine. During Abdul Hamid II's reign, wine exports skyrocketed to 340 million liters by 1904. Wine advertisements were to be found in the Ottoman newspapers, while promotional signs for Martel cognac could be seen all around Istanbul.

Ottoman cognacs distilled by Kotroni Efendi of Erdek entered competitions in Paris and won awards. Again, the first champagne factory was opened in the Ottoman Empire when Abdul Hamid II was the Sultan.

Alcohol production and consumption increased so much during Abdul Hamid II's time, the 34th chapter of Ayşe Fahriye Hanım's famous cookbook Ev Kadını (The Housewife), which was first published in 1883, gave recipe for homemade rakı. The readers were given detailed descriptions of the production methods for two different types of rakı (seasoned with mastic and regular rakı) with a side note that fermented grape juice and wine could also be produced using the same setup.
According to journalist Ahmet Cemaleddin Saraçoğlu, '... the rule of Abdul Hamid II provided a massive tavern to citizens'.126

Alcohol is a very harmful substance, not to mention that Muslims are forbidden from drinking it. God says in a verse:

O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to other than God], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of satan, so avoid it that you may be successful. (Qur'an, 5:90)

Of course, every individual has the right to live their lives the way they wish. The above historical details are in no way to be construed as interfering in people's choices. However, they are important in that they show how the production, sales and export of alcoholic beverages in a Muslim country, with the permission of the Islamic Caliph, set the stage for the moral decline in society and shook the trust of the Islamic world in the Caliph. Even though certain circles maintain that alcoholic drinks were produced for non-Muslims at the time, it is clear that not as many non-Muslims were living on Ottoman lands at the time that would be able to consume millions of liters of alcoholic drinks. In any case, many photographs taken during those days clearly show Ottoman Turks drinking alcohol at beer houses.

Brothels Open and Prostitution Spreads in the Ottoman Society

One of the least-known facts about the reign of Abdul Hamid II is that it is when the first official brothel in the Ottoman Empire was opened upon a letter of instruction by the Caliph Abdul Hamid II. There is no doubt that prostitution was among the principal factors behind the moral decline that took place in the Ottoman society, laying the groundwork for the Empire's fall. At this point, we should remember that Sultan Abdul Hamid II was under intense pressure from the British deep state, as a result of which he put into action the British deep state's plan regarding brothels.

With a letter of instruction by Abdul Hamid II in 1884, the first brothel was opened on Abanoz Street, and was followed by other brothels in Zürefa Street. The brothels that are still active today in Zürefa Street were opened during Abdul Hamid II's rule. In a short period of time, the number of brothels in Galata alone reached a hundred.

The situation became so grim that at one point, ships started to bring patrons for brothels from Europe and Russia to Istanbul. Most of the time, an important duty of the tour guides would be taking the patrons to Zürefa Street.

According to Ottoman archives, during this time, 2,125 prostitutes operated with official licenses; however, the number of those without official licenses was much higher. Brothels were not only in Galata and Karaköy, but also in Üsküdar. Bursa and Izmir also had their own brothels. Furthermore, during the reign of Abdul Hamid II, prostitutes were also brought from Poland, Romania, Austria and Galicia.

During the rule of Abdul Hamid II, prostitution became so widespread, Samuel Cohen, Secretary of the Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and Women, wrote the following grim lines about the situation:

Behind the line of docks there runs a long street called Galata Street. ... Most of the alleys were dedicated to brothels. I thought that the sights I witnessed in Rio de Janeiro were bad, but these brothels in Constantinople beggar description. The inmates of the brothel are seated on low stools or on boxes or on low couches, with almost nothing on in the way of clothes. … Some [prostitutes] stood at the doors or walked about in the rooms in a semi-naked condition, others had dressed themselves somewhat and were walking about the streets paying visits to other houses. … In the vicinity of these houses are cafes and drinking saloons, and in almost every one gambling is going on incessantly. … Everything appears as free and as licentious as possible. There are no hindrances and no difficulties from the authorities. … At one house in particular where the performance commences near midnight and goes on till 4.30 in the morning, the scenes are really disgraceful.127

The opening of brothels upon the instruction of Abdul Hamid II, in a way, turned the Ottoman Empire into a center of prostitution in a short amount of time and adultery spread like wildfire. This allowed the British deep state to achieve its goal to a large extent, which was morally degenerating the Ottoman Empire in order to hasten up its destruction.
Tobacco Factories Open during the Reign of Abdul Hamid II

Tobacco entered Ottoman society in the 1600s. However, almost every Sultan showed considerable effort to block its spread. The measures they took against this substance, which has been shown by medical research to be highly toxic to human body, were necessary and rational. However, things changed when Abdul Hamid II took over. Since he was under intense pressure from the British deep state, he stopped the anti-tobacco measures. Many tobacco factories were opened during his reign. Before his reign, only small shops were producing tobacco, but as soon as the new factories were opened, tobacco use spread quickly. The increased consumption sped up the physical and spiritual breakdown of the Ottoman Empire, especially after the aforementioned mistakes made during Abdul Hamid II's reign.

During his reign, the Cibali and Samsun tobacco factories were opened in 1884 and 1887 respectively. Samsun tobacco factory produced 60,000 kg of cigarettes and 400,000 kg of tobacco every year between 1887 and 1897. By 1905, the production capacity of the factory has reached one million kg. After a while, Izmir, Adana, Samsun and Istanbul became the most important tobacco production and processing centers.128

Instead of fighting to prevent the production and use of this substance, which is lethal for humans, which caused physical and spiritual degeneracy in Turkish youth and wasted away the energy of the nation, Abdul Hamid II continuously encouraged its use. He himself was a tobacco addict. This harmful habit of his is a well-known historical fact, confirmed by many accounts. So much so, his infamous smoking habit was known in even as far away as America. His favorite cigarette was the American 'Ateshian'. This prompted the company to use in its advertisements the slogan 'The cigarret smoked by His Imperial Majesty Abdul Hamid II, Sultan of Turkey'.

İbrahim Peçevi, one of the most prominent chroniclers of the Ottoman Empire, explained how the British introduced tobacco to the Ottoman Empire in his two-volume book Tarih-i Peçevi (Peçevi's History):

The British brought [tobacco] to the Ottoman Empire around 1900 [1600 in Gregorian calendar] and sold it with the claim that it could heal some ailments. Some pleasure-seeker friends became addicts. However, in time, even those people who weren't pleasure-seekers started to consume it. Even many great scholars and statesmen got addicted to smoking… Coffee houses were thick with smoke because all the wasted people and womanizers were there chain-smoking. Even on the streets and marketplaces, they were smoking.129

As one can see, it was the British deep state that first introduced tobacco and spread its use in the Ottoman Empire. The members of the deep state made the people addicted to this poison with lies that it would help cure ailments. When the rule of Abdul Hamid II started, another step was made that would help the British deep state. Abdul Hamid II transferred the tobacco revenues to the 'Régie Company', owned by French and British for 30 years, starting in 1883. So, not only were tobacco factories were opened to produce products that would poison Turkish people, the profit from the poison sold went to the British deep state. Again in his reign, the Régie Company was allowed to have its own armed guards, who heavily oppressed the Turkish people.